Hideo TAKASHIMA / Kitakyushu City / JAPAN / PLEATS
Хидео Такашима / Китакюсю / Япония / проект «Складки»
In the past, we made fire to stop us freezing. If we wanted to cook something, we lit a fire. Matches or torches brought light into the darkness. Everything was more elementary. Now we move further and further away from the elements, especially in cities. Water now comes from supermarkets in the form of an almost infinite variety of bottled
mineral water, or flows from the wall like anafterthought. Fire has actually died out – its unwitting last keepers were the smokers, all other sources having already been largely electrified. While we still know daylight from the sun, darkness has been eradicated. Like our heating, we control the level of light with our technological helpers.
We have to put ourselves to the test to return to the elements. This pursuit takes us to remote forests, high peaks and deep lakes. Instead, we seek places which take us back to our roots. This concept formed the basis for my social housing project “PLEATS” on Yaroslavl.
In the past, we lived with the large variety of animals and plants. Swallows build nests in the eaves, mice run in the attic, and crickets chirp incessantly in the garden. The house is not for only people to live. It involves the time and the memory of all animals and plants living there, and it is the existence such as the changing slowly in the flow of time.
The participants of this workshop and the nature such as the ground have the right to decide of the form, the structure, the color of this architecture. The form and the structure will agree with the power on the tool of the participants and the hardness of the soil. The color will be decided by the rate of mixture of materials and soil in site. The
color and outline will be decided by plants grew by the soil. And after the completion, it will be changed by the pruning by users, seeds carried by birds or the wind, the weathering, and seasons. The changing will make the unique history of this social housing.
Taking account of the basic principles of building physics and technology, simple yet logical solutions were sought for the details.
On the ground floor, the walls were built of clay. After much research,
an ancient and largely forgotten form of construction – so-called “cobwork” – was chosen, in which a mixture of clay and straw is
heaped up to a height of 80-100 cm without formwork and subsequently sheared off with a spade to form the finished wall surface.
After drying, the next layer is added. A thickness of 40 cm was specified partly to provide stability, but also to archive the required insulation value of 0.6W/m2K.
Any moisture occurring in the house is regulated by the solid clay walls, which maintain a balance in the indoor climate. In view of great thickness, the walls also absorb solar heat during the day and emit it internally at night, providing an effective form of thermal protection in summer. Wood is used for heating during the cold period.
PLEATS occupies a rural setting with access to light, air, and views on all sides. With its plan centered on a stove like an IRORI (a traditional Japanese indoor cooking hearth, set into the floor), the house was conceived as an asymmetrical set of nested boxes: shared space in the middle, circulation in the intermediate layer, and individual rooms in the outermost layer.The traditional Japanese house is organized in a sequence of increasing privacy and
intimacy as one moves deeper into the house (the principle of oku); PLEATS inverts that relationship: the entry isa “tunnel” directly into the shared space at heart of the house,from which one moves outward to the personal areas. The private rooms are interposed between the exterior gardens and the interior living spaces. Spatially and formally, Pleats is like a plant inundated with sunand nutrients.
Climate & Resource
In left graph, the red line shows the average maximum temperature, the blue line shows the average minimum temperature, and the yellow bar shows the precipitation.The thin line and the light bar show in Tokyo, others show in Yaroslavl. Yaroslavl has lower rainfall than Tokyo. Because the mud wall weak in the water, the characteristic of climate is profitable.
The straw and clay, materials of the mud wall, are some of the abundant mineral resources. The choice of materials played decisive role in creating an environmentally sustainable building. The criteria in this respect were the appropriateness of a material for a particular element as well as its natural quality and the grey energy it contained. The materials used comprise mainly natural stone, clay, straw and timber, all drawn from around the site.
Case Study : Pit Dwelling
In Jomon period, the pit dwelling, dug down the ground in a circle, with the conically-shaped roof, came to be made on the ground. The entrance connected outside is small. When the fire is built in the center, the heat is accumulated on the drift floor dug down. People warmed the floor with the carpet weaved on the grass and kept out the winter cold. In summer, the hot sunlight was shut out by around trees. Jomon people must have been lived while acquiring hard in the stage which seasonal nature brought. The facade of the house made with using plants must have been melted into the forest.
— winner (1st place)